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Famous Papenhausen Family Is anyone famous hiding in your tree? Ansel Easton Adams - Frank Lloyd Wright - Albert Einstein - He is best known for his work The World as Will and Representation expanded in , wherein he characterizes the phenomenal world as the product of a blind and insatiable metaphysical will.
Though his work failed to garner substantial attention during his life, Schopenhauer has had a posthumous impact across various disciplines, including philosophy, literature, and science. His writing on aesthetics , morality , and psychology influenced thinkers and artists throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.
Ducha 47 , the son of Johanna Schopenhauer née Trosiener and Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer,  both descendants of wealthy German-Dutch patrician families. Both of them weren't very religious,  supported French Revolution ,  were republican , cosmopolitan and Anglophile. Adele , Arthur's only sibling was born on 12 July In Arthur was sent to Le Havre to live for two years with the family of his father's business associate, Grégoire de Blésimaire.
He seemed to enjoy his stay there, learned to speak French fluently and started a friendship with Jean Anthime Grégoire de Blésimaire, his peer, which lasted for a large part of their lives. Heinrich gave his son a choice - he could stay at home and start preparations for university education, or he could travel with them and then continue his merchant education. Arthur would later deeply regret his choice because he found his merchant training tedious. He spent twelve weeks of the tour attending a school in Wimbledon where he was very unhappy and appalled by very strict but intellectually shallow Anglican religiosity which he would continue to sharply criticize later in life despite his general Anglophilia.
In fact Heinrich Floris became so fussy that even his wife started to doubt his mental health. In , Heinrich Floris died by drowning in a canal by their home in Hamburg. Although it was possible that his death was accident, his wife and son believed that it was suicide because he was very prone to unsociable behavior, anxiety and depression which became especially pronounced in his last months of life.
Arthur Schopenhauer would be entitled to control of his part when he reached the age of majority. He invested it conservatively in government bonds and earned annual interest that was more than double the salary of a university professor. Arthur endured two long years of drudgery as a merchant in honor of his dead father, and because of his own doubts about being too old to start a life of a scholar.
Arthur lived in Hamburg with his friend Jean Anthime who was also studying to become a merchant. Although Arthur claimed that he left voluntarily, his mother's letter indicates that he was expelled. He moved to Weimar but didn't live with his mother who even tried to discourage him from coming by explaining that they wouldn't get along very well.
He accused his mother of being financially irresponsible, flirtatious and seeking to remarry, which he considered an insult to his father's memory. By that time Johanna's famous salon was well established among local intellectuals and dignitaries, most celebrated of them being Goethe.
Arthur attended her parties, usually when he knew that Goethe would be there—though the famous writer and statesman didn't even seem to notice the young and unknown student. It is possible that Goethe kept distance because Johanna warned him about her son's depressive and combative nature, or because Goethe was then on bad terms with Arthur's language instructor and roommate, Franz Passow.
He left Weimar to become a student at the University of Göttingen in There are no written reasons about why Schopenhauer chose that university instead of then more famous University of Jena but Göttingen was known as a more modern, scientifically oriented, with less attention given to theology.
He didn't regret his medicinal and scientific studies. He claimed that they were necessary for a philosopher, and even in Berlin he attended more lectures in sciences than in philosophy. He arrived to the newly founded University of Berlin for the winter semester of At the same time his mother just started her literary career; she published her first book in , a biography of her friend Karl Ludwig Fernow , which was a critical success.
Arthur attended lectures by the prominent post-Kantian philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte but quickly found many points of disagreement with his Wissenschaftslehre and he also found his lectures tedious and hard to understand. Schopenhauer left Berlin in a rush in fearing that the city could be attacked and that he could be pressed into military service as Prussia just joined the war against France. He spent his time in solitude, hiking in the mountains and the Thuringian forest and writing his dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason.
He completed his dissertation at about the same time as the French army was defeated at the Battle of Leipzig. He became irritated by the arrival of soldiers to the town and accepted his mother's invitation to visit her in Weimar. She tried to convince him that her relationship with Gerstenbergk was platonic and that she had no intentions of remarrying.
She found his dissertation incomprehensible and said it was unlikely that anyone would ever buy a copy. In a fit of temper Arthur told her that people would read his work long after the "rubbish" she wrote was totally forgotten. Hans Brockhaus later claimed that his predecessors " We published more and more of her son Arthur's work and today nobody remembers Johanna, but her son's works are in steady demand and contribute to Brockhaus'[s] reputation.
Also contrary to his mother's prediction, Schopenhauer's dissertation made an impression on Goethe to whom he sent it as a gift. Another important experience during his stay in Weimar was his acquaintance with Friedrich Majer — a historian of religion, orientalist and disciple of Herder — who introduced him to the Eastern philosophy. He also claimed that he formulated most of his ideas independently, and only later realized the similarities with Buddhism. As the relationship with his mother fell to a new low he left Weimar and moved to Dresden in May In September , while waiting for his book to be published and conveniently escaping an affair with a maid that caused an unwanted pregnancy,  Schopenhauer left Dresden for a yearlong vacation in Italy.
Muhl in Danzig — in which her mother invested their whole savings and Arthur a third of his — was near bankruptcy. He shortened his stay in Italy because of the trouble with Muhl and returned to Dresden. Hegel , whom Schopenhauer described as a "clumsy charlatan". A late essay, On University Philosophy , expressed his resentment towards the work conducted in academies. After his academic failure he continued to travel extensively, visiting Leipzig , Nuremberg , Stuttgart , Schaffhausen , Vevey , Milan and spending eight months in Florence.
The details of the August incident are unknown. He claimed that he just pushed her from his entrance after she rudely refused to leave, and she purposely fell on the ground so she could sue him. She claimed that he attacked her so violently that she had become paralyzed on her right side and unable to work.
She immediately sued him, and the process lasted until May , when a court found Schopenhauer guilty and forced him to pay her an annual pension until her death in Schopenhauer enjoyed Italy, where he studied art and socialized with Italian and English nobles.
He left for Munich and stayed there for a year, mostly recuperating from various health issues, some of them possibly caused by venereal diseases the treatment his doctor used suggests syphilis.
During his Berlin years Schopenhauer occasionally mentioned his desire to marry and have a family. She already had numerous lovers and an out-of-wedlock son, and later gave birth to another son, this time to an unnamed foreign diplomat. She soon had another pregnancy but it was stillborn. Schopenhauer claimed that in his last year in Berlin he had a prophetic dream which urged him to escape the city.
He was quite critical of the available studies and claimed that they were mostly ignorant or fraudulent, but he did believe that there are authentic cases of such phenomena and tried to explain them through his metaphysics as manifestations of the will. Upon his arrival in Frankfurt he experienced a period of depression and declining health. In July Schopenhauer left Frankfurt for Mannheim but returned in July to remain there for the rest of his life, except for a few short journeys.
In , he published On the Will in Nature. In he sent his essay On the Freedom of the Will to the contest of the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and won the prize next year. The Society was appalled that several distinguished contemporary philosophers were mentioned in a very offensive manner, claimed that the essay missed the point and that the arguments were not adequate. He published both essays as The Two Basic Problems of Ethics and in the preface to the second edition of this book, in , he was still pouring insults on Royal Danish Society.
Two years later, after some negotiations, he managed to convince his publisher, Brockhaus, to print the second, updated edition of The World as Will and Representation. The book was again mostly ignored and few reviews were mixed or negative. However, Schopenhauer did start to attract some followers, mostly outside academia, among practical professionals several of them were lawyers who pursued private philosophical studies.
He jokingly referred to them as evangelists and apostles. He was also instrumental in finding another publisher after Brockhaus refused to publish Parerga and Paralipomena believing that it would be another failure. He became worried for his own safety and property. In Schopenhauer published Parerga and Paralipomena , which, as the title says, contains essays that are supplementary to his main work, and are mostly comprehensible to readers unfamiliar with his earlier philosophy. It was his first successful, widely read book, partly due to the work of his disciples who wrote praising reviews.
However, he was becoming less interested in intellectual fights, but encouraged his disciples to do so. Academic philosophers were also starting to notice his work. Schopenhauer seemed flattered and amused by this, and would claim that it was his first chapel. Admirers gave him gifts and asked for autographs. He remained healthy in his old age which he attributed to regular walks no matter the weather, and always getting enough sleep.
In the spring of his health started to decline, he experienced shortness of breath and heart palpitations; in September he suffered inflammation of the lungs and although he was starting to recover he remained very weak.
Schopenhauer saw his philosophy as a continuation of that of Kant, and used the results of his epistemological investigations, that is, transcendental idealism , as starting point for his own:. My philosophy is founded on that of Kant, and therefore presupposes a thorough knowledge of it. Kant's teaching produces in the mind of everyone who has comprehended it a fundamental change which is so great that it may be regarded as an intellectual new-birth.
It alone is able really to remove the inborn realism which proceeds from the original character of the intellect, which neither Berkeley nor Malebranche succeed in doing, for they remain too much in the universal, while Kant goes into the particular, and indeed in a way that is quite unexampled both before and after him, and which has quite a peculiar, and, we might say, immediate effect upon the mind in consequence of which it undergoes a complete undeception, and forthwith looks at all things in another light.
Only in this way can anyone become susceptible to the more positive expositions which I have to give. Kant had argued the empirical world is merely a complex of appearances whose existence and connection occur only in our representations. The inadmissibility of this reasoning was also acknowledged by Schopenhauer. He insisted that this distinction was a true conclusion, drawn from false premises. Although Schopenhauer considered colour theory a minor matter,  he accepted the invitation out of admiration for Goethe.
Nevertheless, these investigations led him to his most important discovery in epistemology: Kant openly admitted that it was Hume 's skeptical assault on causality that motivated the critical investigations of Critique of Pure Reason.
In it, he gives an elaborate proof to show that causality is given a priori. The difference between the approach of Kant and Schopenhauer was this: Kant simply declared that the empirical content of perception is "given" to us from outside, an expression with which Schopenhauer often expressed his dissatisfaction.
The sensations in the hand of a man born blind, on feeling an object of cubic shape, are quite uniform and the same on all sides and in every direction: His Understanding, however, draws the immediate and intuitive conclusion from the resistance felt, that this resistance must have a cause, which then presents itself through that conclusion as a hard body; and through the movements of his arms in feeling the object, while the hand's sensation remains unaltered, he constructs the cubic shape in Space.
If the representation of a cause and of Space, together with their laws, had not already existed within him, the image of a cube could never have proceeded from those successive sensations in his hand.
Causality is therefore not an empirical concept drawn from objective perceptions, but objective perception presupposes knowledge of causality. Hereby Hume's skepticism is disproven.
By this intellectual operation, comprehending every effect in our sensory organs as having an external cause, the external world arises.
With vision, finding the cause is essentially simplified due to light acting in straight lines. We are seldom conscious of the process, that interprets the double sensation in both eyes as coming from one object; that turns the upside down impression; and that adds depth to make from the planimetrical data stereometrical perception with distance between objects.
Schopenhauer stresses the importance of the intellectual nature of perception, the senses furnish the raw material by which the intellect produces the world as representation.
Schopenhauer developed a system called metaphysical voluntarism. The kernel and chief point of my doctrine, its Metaphysic proper, is this, that what Kant opposed as thing-in-itself to mere appearance called more decidedly by me "representation" and what he held to be absolutely unknowable, that this thing-in-itself , I say, this substratum of all appearances, and therefore of the whole of Nature, is nothing but what we know directly and intimately and find within ourselves as will ; that accordingly, this will , far from being inseparable from, and even a mere result of, knowledge, differs radically and entirely from, and is quite independent of, knowledge, which is secondary and of later origin; and can consequently subsist and manifest itself without knowledge: For Schopenhauer, human desire was futile, illogical, directionless, and, by extension, so was all human action in the world.
Einstein paraphrased his views as follows: To Schopenhauer, the Will is a blind force that controls not only the actions of individual, intelligent agents, but ultimately all observable phenomena—an evil to be terminated via mankind's duties: For Schopenhauer, human desiring, "willing", and craving cause suffering or pain.
A temporary way to escape this pain is through aesthetic contemplation a method comparable to Zapffe 's " Sublimation ". Aesthetic contemplation allows one to escape this pain—albeit temporarily—because it stops one perceiving the world as mere presentation.
Instead, one no longer perceives the world as an object of perception therefore as subject to the Principle of Sufficient Grounds; time, space and causality from which one is separated; rather one becomes one with that perception: From this immersion with the world one no longer views oneself as an individual who suffers in the world due to one's individual will but, rather, becomes a "subject of cognition" to a perception that is "Pure, will-less, timeless" section 34 where the essence, "ideas", of the world are shown.
Music, for Schopenhauer, was the purest form of art because it was the one that depicted the will itself without it appearing as subject to the Principle of Sufficient Grounds, therefore as an individual object.
According to Daniel Albright, "Schopenhauer thought that music was the only art that did not merely copy ideas, but actually embodied the will itself". He deemed music a timeless, universal language comprehended everywhere, that can imbue global enthusiasm, if in possession of a significant melody. Schopenhauer's realist views on mathematics are evident in his criticism of the contemporaneous attempts to prove the parallel postulate in Euclidean geometry.
Writing shortly before the discovery of hyperbolic geometry demonstrated the logical independence of the axiom —and long before the general theory of relativity revealed that it does not necessarily express a property of physical space—Schopenhauer criticized mathematicians for trying to use indirect concepts to prove what he held was directly evident from intuitive perception.
The Euclidean method of demonstration has brought forth from its own womb its most striking parody and caricature in the famous controversy over the theory of parallels , and in the attempts, repeated every year, to prove the eleventh axiom also known as the fifth postulate. The axiom asserts, and that indeed through the indirect criterion of a third intersecting line, that two lines inclined to each other for this is the precise meaning of "less than two right angles" , if produced far enough, must meet.
Now this truth is supposed to be too complicated to pass as self-evident, and therefore needs a proof; but no such proof can be produced, just because there is nothing more immediate. Throughout his writings,  Schopenhauer criticized the logical derivation of philosophies and mathematics from mere concepts, instead of from intuitive perceptions.
In fact, it seems to me that the logical method is in this way reduced to an absurdity. But it is precisely through the controversies over this, together with the futile attempts to demonstrate the directly certain as merely indirectly certain, that the independence and clearness of intuitive evidence appear in contrast with the uselessness and difficulty of logical proof, a contrast as instructive as it is amusing.
The direct certainty will not be admitted here, just because it is no merely logical certainty following from the concept, and thus resting solely on the relation of predicate to subject, according to the principle of contradiction. But that eleventh axiom regarding parallel lines is a synthetic proposition a priori , and as such has the guarantee of pure, not empirical, perception; this perception is just as immediate and certain as is the principle of contradiction itself, from which all proofs originally derive their certainty.
At bottom this holds good of every geometrical theorem Although Schopenhauer could see no justification for trying to prove Euclid's parallel postulate, he did see a reason for examining another of Euclid's axioms. It surprises me that the eighth axiom,  "Figures that coincide with one another are equal to one another", is not rather attacked. For "coinciding with one another" is either a mere tautology , or something quite empirical , belonging not to pure intuition or perception, but to external sensuous experience.
Thus it presupposes mobility of the figures, but matter alone is movable in space. Consequently, this reference to coincidence with one another forsakes pure space, the sole element of geometry , in order to pass over to the material and empirical. This follows Kant 's reasoning. The task of ethics is not to prescribe moral actions that ought to be done, but to investigate moral actions.
Philosophy is always theoretical: According to Kant's teaching of transcendental idealism, space and time are forms of our sensibility due to which the phenomena appear in multiplicity. Reality in itself is free from all multiplicity, not in the sense that an object is one, but that it is outside the possibility of multiplicity.
From this follows that two individuals, though they appear as distinct, are in-themselves not distinct. The appearances are entirely subordinated to the principle of sufficient reason. The egoistic individual who focuses his aims completely on his own interests has therefore to deal with empirical laws as good as he can.
What is relevant for ethics are individuals who can act against their own self-interest. If we take for example a man who suffers when he sees his fellow men living in poverty, and consequently uses a significant part of his income to support their needs instead his own pleasures, then the simplest way to describe this is that he makes less distinction between himself and others than is usually made.
Regarding how the things appear to us, the egoist is right to assert the gap between two individuals, but the altruist experiences the sufferings of others as his own. In the same way a compassionate man cannot hurt animals, though they appear as distinct from himself.
What motivates the altruist is compassion. The sufferings of others is for him not a cold matter to which he is indifferent, but he feels connected to all beings. Compassion is thus the basis of morality. Schopenhauer calls the principle through which multiplicity appears the principium individuationis. When we behold nature we see that it is a cruel battle for existence.
Individual manifestations of the will can maintain themselves at only at the expense of others—the will, as the only thing that exists, has no other option but to devour itself to experience pleasure. This is a fundamental characteristic of the will, and cannot be circumvented.
Tormenter and tormented are one. He offers no help at all and even when you finish your lab, he makes you wait 40 minutes so he can talk to each person individually for their "terrible" lab report, which he doesn't explain how to do. His test are same as the examples that he does in the class. A nice professor but he does not have the passion for teaching. He does not explain anything and if he does, his concepts are not simple to understand.
Labs are pretty easy. He is a easy grader Does care about attendance. His tests are easy if you learn the material. He copies everything exactly from the textbook and puts it on the board as notes. Tests are easy, he explains thoroughly Probably one of the smartest professors around. He is firm with lab reports,but it easy labs. Very helpful,write down the problems he does in class bc it mirrors his exams. Rambles on throughout entire class but the material taught is easier to understand than in the way he explains it.
Other than that his tests are exactly like this practice problems. Leave this class before you even start! He is incompetent and rude. Does not listen or respond to anyone's questions and doesn't even know what he's saying half the time.
He teaches basic common knowledge science and his tests are for a level class. These comments below are even too nice. This professor doesn't even deserve a teaching job! This professor is disappointing.
He does not interact with his students, nor does he seem to have any interest. His lecture consists of him reading from the text, line by line. I would not recommend taking a course with him, he has no passion for or interest in teaching. He is a horrible professor. He just rambles on the whole class never interacting with anyone. His test are on nothing that you cover in class. He basically put me to sleep everytime I stayed for the full class. Not worth your time. He's very hard to understand sometimes and does not give a clear answer to a lot of questions.
Also, a lot of the questions on his tests don't reflect notes taken in class.
Modernity, Philosophy, and the One. Indeed, I cannot understand how his name can be unknown.
He forced these movements to address issues they would otherwise have completely ignored, and in doing so he changed them markedly. Not worth your time.