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The most predominant compounds are the alcohol linalool Disc diffusion vapor assay was carried out by the method described by Goñi et al. Overnight cultures of the S. The swab was used to streak the agar plate to produce a lawn of growth by streaking the plate in 3 different directions.
The diameters of zones of inhibitions were measured in mm after 24 h of incubation. The assays were carried out on three different occasions in duplicate. In vitro dressing model was designed by a modification of the method described by Edwards-Jones et al. This study was carried out on three different occasions in duplicate.
Dressing model using an agar plate. Untreated control plates of S. Prior to assays, the monolayers were washed and incubated with K-SFM medium without antibiotic.
Based on our previous results, 0. After incubation, the cell monolayer was observed under phase-contrast microscope Olympus, Japan. Adherence and invasion assays were performed using a modified procedure derived from Harvey et al.
Louis, MO in PBS for 15 min to detach the bacterial cells and subsequently the lysate containing bacterial cells were diluted and viable intra- and extra-cellular bacterial numbers were determined by counting the CFU on TSA plate. Results are expressed as the average number of bacterial CFU from three assays. In an effort to explore the potential use of orange EO against antibiotic resistant S.
Therefore, in the present study the effect of CPV vapour on S. Generally to study the antimicrobial effect of vapour, EO impregnated paper disc is placed on the lid of Petri dish and subsequently the growth inhibition zone is measured and used to indicate the antimicrobial effect of EO [ 19 , 21 ].
In our disc diffusion CPV vapour study, growth of all the six S. The maximum diameter of inhibition zone The lower diameter of inhibition zone Similar to our observation, strain specific variation in the growth inhibition in S. It has been previously noted that the degree of inhibition of bacterial growth by EOs considerably varies due to the complexity of EOs and characteristics of bacterial strains [ 48 ]. Related to results observed in our study Gaunt et al. In their study, agar plates inoculated with S.
In their study they found that vapour phase of cinnamon, clove or mixture of cinnamon and clove EOs showed better inhibition of S. Our disc diffusion vapor assay proved that the vapor phase of the volatile components in the CPV serves as possible source of antimicrobial agents. Therefore, we considered assessment of the anti-staphylococcal effect of CPV vapor in an in vitro dressing model to evaluate the potential topical application of CPV.
As we observed in the disc diffusion vapor assay a similar inhibitory effect was observed in the dressing model as well. Our present study has demonstrated the potential of the CPV as an anti-MRSA agent in the vapor phase in both the disc diffusion assay and the in vitro dressing model. Effectiveness of the vapor phase EOs against microbial growth was shown to be better than the direct contact of EOs with the inoculated culture has already been reported in other studies [ 44 , 50 ].
In an in vitro dressing model study Edwards-Jones et al. Results of their study concluded that EOs can be applied as a natural anti-MRSA agent on the outer layer of the dressing without disturbing the normal wound healing process. Dermal exposure to either synthetic or natural chemical substances can lead to a wide variety of skin reactions.
Therefore, it is important to evaluate the new topical therapy agents that can potentially affect the skin cells [ 51 ].
Skin is the first-line defense against invading pathogens [ 52 ], and is composed of three layers, whereas the outermost epidermis is a squamous epithelium that mainly consists of keratinocytes [ 53 ]. Therefore, in this study we used keratinocyte cells as an in vitro model to assess the effect of CPV.
Since there are general concerns about the toxicity and adverse effects of the plant derived natural products on the host first we evaluated the toxic effect of CPV on human keratinocyte cell monolayer. Therefore, to examine whether CPV has toxic effect on keratinocyte cells, 0. Result of this observation indicated that the concentration 0. Host tolerance is one of the issues that must be considered when evaluating natural antibacterial agents [ 54 ].
Many currently available antifungal and antibacterial agent possess undesirable toxicity [ 16 , 54 ]. However, interestingly in our in vitro study the CPV treatment on keratinocyte cells did not exhibit any toxic effect mediated cell death in keratinocyte cells. It indicates the potential suitability of CPV for the topical antimicrobial treatment for dermal S. Enumeration of total number S.
We did not observe any difference between these two controls data not shown. Compared to the control, CPV treated keratinocyte exhibited gradual decreases in total numbers of attached S.
After 3 h of incubation with 0. Butylated Hydroxy Toluene , Triclosan 0. Previous case studies have also demonstrated the topical use of Eucalyptus oil extracted from the Eucalyptus globulus leaf together with bioethanol for MRSA wound infection. This case study has reported that without administering any antibiotic application of 0. Recently, Palaniappan and Holley showed that natural antimicrobials carvacrol, thymol, and cinnamaldehyde were able to substantially decrease the MIC of antibiotics in a diverse group of bacteria containing genetic elements responsible for drug resistance [ 61 ].
They have demonstrated the synergistic effect of carvacrol, thymol, and cinnamaldehyde in the reduced MIC's of ampicillin, penicillin and bacitracin against penicillin-resistant S. Thus, we speculate it is possible to use the CPV either single topical agent or synergistically with other antibiotics to control the S. Effect of CPV treatment on the total number of S.
MRSA is common in the U. Surveillance reports indicate that in the U. Also, MRSA-related hospitalization rate per 1, discharges doubled in [ 62 , 63 ]. Despite major advances in wound and burn management in the new millennium, infection still remains an important factor in wound healing [ 6 ].
Novel classes are clearly needed for MRSA, because current drug classes exhibit emerging resistance. We have initiated this study as a first step towards the investigation of potential antistaphylococcal effect of CPV and its usage for skin infection.
In this study, we have demonstrated the antistaphylococcal effect of CPV in an in vitro dressing model and S. While, we provide interesting and valuable basic data for CPV we suggest prior to continuing on for further studies to test the clinical safety and efficacy of the CPV to use as topical anti-MRSA agent comparison of the inhibitory effect of CPV with antibiotics currently used to treat MRSA skin infection would provide additional valid information for the future therapeutic applications.
In our earlier study we have reported the bacteriolytic effect and mechanism of action of CPV in antibiotic resistant S. The next step in this CPV series study focuses the comparison of the inhibitory effect of CPV with standard antibiotic disc assay together with a quality control strains to develop a standard evaluation method to test the inhibitory effect of CPV on more S. Terpeneless cold-pressed valencia orange oil; EO: Vancomycin intermediate-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
AM designed and performed the experiments, interpreted the results and drafted the manuscript. AM and DB designed and performed the cell culture experiment and data analysis.
SCR critically read the manuscript and participated in revision of the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Aug Received Nov 5; Accepted Aug 8. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen most often and prevalently involved in skin and soft tissue infections.
Background The highly adaptive S. Methods Bacterial strains Methicillin-susceptible S. Disc diffusion vapor assay for screening the inhibitory effect of CPV Disc diffusion vapor assay was carried out by the method described by Goñi et al. In vitro dressing model study In vitro dressing model was designed by a modification of the method described by Edwards-Jones et al.
Open in a separate window. Antistaphylococcal effect of CPV vapor in dressing model Our disc diffusion vapor assay proved that the vapor phase of the volatile components in the CPV serves as possible source of antimicrobial agents. Non-cytotoxic effect of CPV on HEK keratinocyte cells Dermal exposure to either synthetic or natural chemical substances can lead to a wide variety of skin reactions.
Anti-staphylococcal effect of CPV in S. ND — Not detectable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors' contributions AM designed and performed the experiments, interpreted the results and drafted the manuscript. Pre-publication history The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: Basis of virulence in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Evolving epidemiology of pediatric Staphylococcus aureus cutaneous infections in a Baltimore hospital. National trends in ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescribing for skin and soft-tissue infections. Treatment of skin and soft tissue infections in the elderly: Am J Geri Pharmacother. Changes in the classification and management of skin and soft tissue infections. James Laing Memorial Prize Essay Changes in bacterial isolates from burn wounds and their antibiograms: Union Pacific Railroad , U.
It was not the purpose or the effect of that amendment to bring any new subject within the taxing power. Congress already had the power to tax all incomes. But taxes on incomes from some sources had been held to be "direct taxes" within the meaning of the constitutional requirement as to apportionment. Under this definition, any increase in wealth — whether through wages , benefits, bonuses, sale of stock or other property at a profit, bets won, lucky finds, awards of punitive damages in a lawsuit, qui tam actions — are all within the definition of income, unless the Congress makes a specific exemption, as it has for items such as life insurance proceeds received by reason of the death of the insured party,  gifts , bequests , devises and inheritances,  and certain scholarships.
Federal courts have ruled that the Sixteenth Amendment allows a direct tax on "wages, salaries, commissions, etc. Although the Sixteenth Amendment is often cited as the "source" of the congressional power to tax incomes, at least one court has reiterated the point made in Brushaber and other cases that the Sixteenth Amendment itself did not grant the Congress the power to tax incomes, a power the Congress had since , but only removed the possible requirement that any income tax be apportioned among the states according to their respective populations.
In dealing with the scope of the taxing power the question has sometimes been framed in terms of whether something can be taxed as income under the Sixteenth Amendment. This is an inaccurate formulation It did not take a constitutional amendment to entitle the United States to impose an income tax.
The Sixteenth Amendment removed that barrier. Indeed, the requirement for apportionment is pretty strictly limited to taxes on real and personal property and capitation taxes. It is not necessary to uphold the validity of the tax imposed by the United States that the tax itself bear an accurate label.
Indeed, the tax upon the distillation of spirits, imposed very early by federal authority, now reads and has read in terms of a tax upon the spirits themselves, yet the validity of this imposition has been upheld for a very great many years. It could well be argued that the tax involved here [an income tax] is an "excise tax" based upon the receipt of money by the taxpayer.
It certainly is not a tax on property and it certainly is not a capitation tax; therefore, it need not be apportioned. We do not think it profitable, however, to make the label as precise as that required under the Food and Drug Act. Congress has the power to impose taxes generally, and if the particular imposition does not run afoul of any constitutional restrictions then the tax is lawful, call it what you will.
Internal Revenue Service and United States. Under federal sovereign immunity , a taxpayer may sue the federal government, but not a government agency, officer, or employee with some exceptions. Insofar as the Congress has waived sovereign immunity with respect to suits for tax refunds under 28 U. An exception to federal sovereign immunity is in the United States Tax Court , in which a taxpayer may sue the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.
In its original decision, the Court had ruled that 26 U. Because the August opinion was vacated, the Court of Appeals did not hear the case en banc. The Court stated that "[a]lthough the 'Congress cannot make a thing income which is not so in fact', Murphy was not entitled to the tax refund she claimed, and that the personal injury award she received was "within the reach of the Congressional power to tax under Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution" — even if the award was "not income within the meaning of the Sixteenth Amendment".
On April 21, , the U. Supreme Court declined to review the decision by the Court of Appeals. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Drafting and ratification timeline Convention Signing Federalism Republicanism. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience.
Please help by spinning off or relocating any relevant information, and removing excessive detail that may be against Wikipedia's inclusion policy. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. United States 3 U. United States , in answers. It is not disputable that these latter tax laws were classed under the head of excises, duties, and imposts because it was assumed that they were of that character, although putting a tax burden on income of every kind, including that derived from property real or personal, since they were not taxes directly on property because of its ownership.
Railroad , U. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, Archived from the original PDF on The Historical Background," p. Retrieved April 20, Gov't Printing Office Commissioner , 44 T. Bar Ass'n footnotes omitted; italics in original.
Andrews, Basic Federal Income Taxation , p. Zelenak, Federal Income Taxation of Individuals 2d ed. Johnson, "Purging Out Pollock: Dixler, "Direct Taxes Under the Constitution: A Review of the Precedents", Nov. Sixteenth Amendment, History and Purpose of the Amendment". Commissioner , 37 T. Bittker , Martin J. Zelenak, Federal Income Taxation of Individuals , ch.
Commissioner , F. For other court decisions upholding the taxability of wages, salaries, etc. Connor , F. United States , U. Buras , F. Commissioner , 32 T. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Internal Revenue Service and United States , case no. Retrieved 21 April Amendment proposals in Congress Convention to propose amendments State ratifying conventions.
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The Pollock ruling made the source of the income e.
AM designed and performed the experiments, interpreted the results and drafted the manuscript. The Megadyne range of products for the white goods and power tool markets, offer safe, low noise and energy efficient solutions.