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Social Engagement Compare it to In , a revolt occurred among the soldiers and sailors of Surabaya, led by the Indies Social Democratic Association. The revolt was firmly crushed and the insurgents given harsh sentences. Japan occupied the city in , as part of the occupation of Indonesia , and it was bombed by the Allies in The young nation soon came into conflict with the British, who had become caretakers of the Dutch colony after the surrender of the Japanese.
The Allies gave an ultimatum to the Republicans inside the city to surrender, but they refused. The ensuing battle, which cost thousands of lives, took place on November 10, which Indonesians subsequently celebrate as Hari Pahlawan Heroes' Day. The incident of the red-white flag the Dutch flag at the top of Yamato Hotel's tower that was torn into the Indonesian red-white flag by Bung Tomo is also recorded as a heroic feat during the struggle of this city.
The city is known as Kota Pahlawan "city of heroes" due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanizing Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution. Surabaya was reported by a Singaporean as being clean and green. Surabaya is located on the northern coast of East Java province. It is mostly lowlands with a river estuary of Kalimas , one of two branches of the Brantas River. Surabaya city borders Madura Strait in the north and east, Sidoarjo Regency in the south, and Gresik Regency in the west.
The regencies surrounding Surabaya are:. Like many other large Indonesian metropolises, many residents reside outside the city limits in a metropolitan area called Gerbangkertosusila.
Under the Köppen climate classification system, Surabaya features a tropical wet and dry climate Aw , with distinct wet and dry seasons. The city's wet season runs from November through June, while the dry season covers the remaining five months.
The city has its own local government and legislative body. The mayor and members of representatives are locally elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The city government enjoys greater decentralization of affairs than the provincial body, such as the provision of public schools, public health facilities, and public transportation.
Current mayor of the city is Tri Rismaharini , the first female mayor in Surabaya, and has led Surabaya to achieve many regional, national and international awards since her first term as Surabaya Mayor in Besides Mayor and Deputy Mayor, there is Surabaya Municipal People's Representative Council, which is a legislative body of 50 council members directly elected by the people in legislative elections every five years.
Surabaya is divided into 31 kecamatan districts ,   and urban villages. The districts are grouped into five areas: Central, North, South, East, and West. Surabaya is the second-most populous city in Indonesia, with 3,, recorded in the chartered city limits kota in the census.
Though central government of Indonesia recognizes only the metropolitan area Surabaya, Gresik, and Sidarjo as Greater Surabaya Zona Surabaya Raya with a population of 8,, , making Surabaya now the second-largest metropolitan area in Indonesia.
The city is highly urbanized , with industries centralized in the city, and contains slums. As the main education center, the city is also home for students from around Indonesia. Surabaya is an old city that has expanded over time, and its population continues to grow at roughly 2.
In recent years, more people have moved to Surabaya from nearby suburbs and villages in East Java. Ethnic Javanese people are the majority in Surabaya, with Chinese Indonesians , Indian Indonesians , and ethnic Madurese being significant minorities in the city. Surabaya also has ethnic populations from other parts of Indonesia: Surabaya is one of major cities in Indonesia has majority population of Arabs especially Hadhrami people came from Hadhramaut region in Yemen.
A stereotype of this dialect concerns equality and directness in speech. The use of register is less strict than the Central Java dialect. The Suroboyoan dialect is a mixture of both Bahasa Indonesia and Javanese, also with some significant influence from foreign languages such as Madurese , etc. The Suroboyoan dialect is actively promoted in local media, such as in local TV shows, radio, newspapers, and traditional dramas called Ludruk.
The influence of Hinduism is strong in basic Surabayan culture, but only a minority of the population adheres to Hinduism mostly among the ethnic Indian minority. Also, a significant population of Chinese Indonesians adhere to Buddhism and Confucianism , and a small community of Dutch Jews follow Judaism. The city had an influential role as a major Islamic center in Java during the Wali Sanga era. His tomb is a sacred religious site in the city and is visited by Surabayans and pilgrims from different parts of Indonesia.
Al-Akbar Mosque is the largest mosque in Surabaya. Christianity as a whole in Surabaya is mainly practised by Chinese Indonesians, as well as native Javanese , Bataks , and Ambonese who attend either a Roman Catholic or Protestant church. A minority of Javanese practice at the Gereja Kejawen, a branch of native Christianity. Around 15 churches are in Surabaya; they vary in size.
Once the major religion in Surabaya and across the archipelago during the Majapahit era, Hinduism played a major role on traditional Surabayan culture.
Small Hindu communities still exist, most commonly in the eastern sections of the city. Surabaya was the location of the only synagogue in Java, but it rarely obtained a minyan quorum. The synagogue was demolished in by unidentified persons while the city council was in the process of registering it as a heritage site. Since the early s, Surabaya has been one of the most important and busiest trading city ports in Asia.
Principal exports from the port include sugar , tobacco , and coffee. Its rich history as a trading port has led to a strong financial infrastructure with modern economic institutions such as banks, insurance, and sound export-import companies. The economy is influenced by the recent growth in foreign industries and the completion of the Suramadu Bridge.
The high potential and economic activities make the city an attractive destination to foreign investors. The city is home to a large shipyard and numerous specialized naval schools. As the provincial capital, Surabaya has a number of offices and business centers; as a metropolitan city, it became the center of economic, financial, and business activities in East Java and beyond.
Also, Surabaya is the second-largest port city in Indonesia after Jakarta. As a trading center, Surabaya is not only a trade center for East Java, but also facilitates areas in Central Java , Kalimantan , and Eastern Indonesia. Surabaya's strategic location in almost in the center of Indonesia and just south of Asia makes it one of the important hubs for trading activities in Southeast Asia.
It is currently in the process of building high-rise skyscrapers, including apartments, condominiums, and hotels, to attract foreign capital.
Surabaya and the surrounding area are undergoing the most rapidly growing and the most advanced economic developmentin Indonesia. The city is also one of the most important cities in supporting Indonesia's economy.
Most of the population is engaged in services, industry, and trade. Surabaya is a fast growing trading center. Major industries include shipbuilding, heavy equipment, food processing and agriculture, electronics, home furnishings, and handicrafts. The area between Jalan Basuki Rachmat, Jalan Embong Malang, and Jalan Bubutan has grown as a business center and has turned into one of the main business and trade activities areas in Surabaya. This area has now grown as one of the most rapidly growing commercial and business centers in East Java, with high-rise buildings.
Surabaya has plenty of shopping centers like other major cities of Indonesia, ranging from traditional markets to most modern shopping malls. Outlets of local and international brands have presence in modern shopping malls. Architecture in Surabaya is a mixture of colonial, Asian, Javanese, modern, and post-modern influences.
There are still many colonial era relics still standing today, such as Hotel Majapahit and Surabaya Post Office. As a relatively old city in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, most colonial buildings in Surabaya were built around the 17th century to early 20th century.
Before the Second World War, there were many shop houses in the old part of the city, mostly of two storey. These shop houses have influence of European and Chinese traditions. Although some have been dismantled for new construction, there are still many old buildings that are preserved as cultural heritage and city icons, which are around the area of Kembang Jepun Street, Karet Street, Gula Street, Slompretan Street, and Rajawali Street.
After independence of Indonesia, the center of Surabaya's architectural development was concentrated only in the area of Jembatan Merah, and its surroundings. In the late s and early s, modern and post-modern style buildings were increasingly emerging in Surabaya. Along with the economic development, such buildings continue to grow in Surabaya until now. The Eastern Fleet is headquartered here.
It is one of two fleets in the Indonesian Navy. Transportation in Surabaya is supported by land and sea infrastructure serving local, regional, and international journeys. Air transport is located at Juanda Airport , at Sedati , Sidoarjo. Intracity transport is primarily by motor vehicles, motorcycles and taxis with limited public bus transport available. Surabaya is also a transit city between Jakarta and Bali for ground transportation.
Another bus route is between Jakarta and the neighboring island of Madura.
The city is known as Kota Pahlawan "city of heroes" due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanizing Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution. InstaForex sends its best wishes to the winners and to all other participants, may you find your names in the ….
The city's wet season runs from November through June, while the dry season covers the remaining five months.